En este apartado recopilamos la visión académica respecto a la desinformación. Un mapeo realizado en Scopus y Web of Science, dos de las principales bases de datos académicas, nos permite ver cómo ha crecido la literatura sobre el tema en los últimos cinco años.


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Asak, M. O., & Molale, T. B. (2020). Deconstructing De-legitimization of Mainstream Media as Sources of Authentic News in the Post-Truth Era. Communicatio, 0167.

Bailla, H., & Yachoulti, M. (2020). Citizen journalism in Morocco: the case of fact-checkers. The Journal of North African Studies, 1–32.

Ball, B. (2020). Defeating Fake News; On Journalism, Knowledge, and Democracy. Moral Philosophy and Politics.

Bengtsson, S., & Johansson, S. (2020). A phenomenology of news: Understanding news in digital culture. Journalism, 146488491990119.

Benham, J. (2020). Best Practices for Journalistic Balance: Gatekeeping, Imbalance and the Fake News Era. Journalism Practice, 14(7), 791–811.

Bratu, S. (2020). The fake news sociology of covid-19 pandemic fear: Dangerously inaccurate beliefs, emotional contagion, and conspiracy ideation. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, 19, 128–134.

Carlson, M. (2020). Fake news as an informational moral panic: the symbolic deviancy of social media during the 2016 US presidential election. Information Communication and Society, 23(3), 374–388.

Casero-Ripollés, A. (2020). Impact of covid-19 on the media system. Communicative and democratic consequences of news consumption during the outbreak. El Profesional de La Informacion, 29(2), 1–11.

Cheng, Y., & Chen, Z. F. (2020). The Influence of Presumed Fake News Influence: Examining Public Support for Corporate Corrective Response, Media Literacy Interventions, and Governmental Regulation. Mass Communication and Society, 23(5), 705–729.

Cunliffe-Jones, P. (2020). From Church and Mosque to WhatsApp—Africa Check’s Holistic Approach to Countering ‘Fake News.’ Political Quarterly, 91(3), 596–599.

De Oliveira, N. R., Medeiros, D. S. V., & Mattos, D. M. F. (2020). A Sensitive Stylistic Approach to Identify Fake News on Social Networking. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 27, 1250–1254.

De Rezende Damasceno, D., & Patrício, E. (2020). Journalism and fact-checking: Typification of sources used for checking and criteria for selecting fact-checked material – An analysis by Agência Lupa and Aos Fatos. Brazilian Journalism Research, 16(2), 368–393.

Egelhofer, J. L., Aaldering, L., Eberl, J. M., Galyga, S., & Lecheler, S. (2020). From Novelty to Normalization? How Journalists Use the Term “Fake News” in their Reporting. Journalism Studies, 21(10), 1323–1343.

Ekström, M., Lewis, S. C., & Westlund, O. (2020). Epistemologies of digital journalism and the study of misinformation. New Media and Society, 22(2), 205–212.

Faragó, L., Kende, A., & Krekó, P. (2020). We only Believe in News That We Doctored Ourselves: The Connection between Partisanship and Political Fake News. Social Psychology, 51(2), 77–90.

Farkas, J., & Neumayer, C. (2020). Mimicking News. Nordicom Review, 41(1), 1–17.

Fisher, C., Flew, T., Park, S., Lee, J. Y., & Dulleck, U. (2020). Improving Trust in News: Audience Solutions. Journalism Practice, 1–19.

Fletcher, R., Schifferes, S., & Thurman, N. (2020). Building the ‘Truthmeter’: Training algorithms to help journalists assess the credibility of social media sources. Convergence, 26(1), 19–34.

Flores-Vivar, J. M. (2020). Datos masivos, algoritmización y nuevos medios frente a desinformación y fake news. Bots para minimizar el impacto en las organizaciones. Comunicación y Hombre, 16, 101–114.

Gómez-García, S., & Carrillo-Vera, J.-A. (2020). El discurso de los newsgames frente a las noticias falsas y la desinformación: cultura mediática y alfabetización digital. Prisma Social, 30, 22–46.

Herrero-Diz, P., Pérez-Escolar, M., & Plaza Sánchez, J. F. (2020). Gender disinformation: Analysing hoaxes on Maldito Feminismo. Icono14, 18(2), 188–216.

Hopp, T., & Ferrucci, P. (2020). A Spherical Rendering of Deviant Information Resilience. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 97(2), 492–508.

Höttecke, D. (2020). The mediation of science in the age of social media. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 152(3), 307–319.

Jalli, N. (2020). Exploring the Influence of Citizen Journalism Content on The Malaysian Political Landscape. Kajian Malaysia, 38(1), 67–88.

Jiménez, B. V., & Pérez-Escolar, M. (2020). Guarding the Guardians: Fictional Representation of Manipulated and Fake News in Graham Greene’s Work. Anglia, 138(1), 98–117.

Jurado, F., Delgado, O., & Ortigosa, Á. (2020). Tracking News Stories Using Blockchain to Guarantee their Traceability and Information Analysis. International Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence, 6(3), 39.

Koliska, M., Chadha, K., & Burns, A. (2020). Talking Back: Journalists Defending Attacks Against their Profession in the Trump Era. Journalism Studies, 21(11), 1496–1513.

Kwanda, F. A., & Lin, T. T. C. (2020). Fake news practices in Indonesian newsrooms during and after the Palu earthquake: a hierarchy-of-influences approach. Information Communication and Society, 23(6), 849–866.

Laguillo, D. (2020). La esfera de Platón: “individuos sombra” y “ciudadanos” ante la pandemia de bulos sobre el coronavirus COVID-19. Revista Española De Comunicación En Salud, 265.

Levitskaya, A., & Fedorov, A. (2020). Typology and mechanisms of media manipulation. International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 5(1), 69–78.

Mayo-Cubero, M. (2020). News sections, journalists and information sources in the journalistic coverage of crises and emergencies in Spain. El Profesional de La Informacion, 29(2).

Mendiguren, T., Pérez Dasilva, J., & Meso Ayerdi, K. (2020). Facing Fake News: The case of the students of the University of the Basque Country. Revista de Comunicacion, 19(1), 171–184.

Munger, K. (2020). All the News That’s Fit to Click: The Economics of Clickbait Media. Political Communication, 37(3), 376–397.

Nounkeu, C. T. (2020). Facebook and Fake News in the “Anglophone Crisis” in Cameroon. African Journalism Studies, 0(0), 1–16.

Olaniyan, A., & Akpojivi, U. (2020). Transforming communication, social media, counter-hegemony and the struggle for the soul of Nigeria. Information Communication and Society, 0(0), 1–16.

Paganotti, I., Sakamoto, L. M., & Ratier, R. P. (2020). Between legality and legitimacy: Differences and reasoning behind the TSE’s definition and blocking of “fake news.” Brazilian Journalism Research, 16(2), 320–341.

Paisana, M., Pinto-Martinho, A., & Cardoso, G. (2020). Trust and fake news: Exploratory analysis of the impact of news literacy on the relationship with news content in Portugal. Communication & Society, 33(2), 105–117.

Peñafiel-Saiz, C., Ronco-López, M., & Castañeda-Zumeta, A. (2020). Ecología comunicativa en tiempos del coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Del moméntum catastróphicum al virtus véritas. Revista Española de Comunicación En Salud, 328–338.

Pozo-Montes, Y., & León-Manovel, M. (2020). Plataformas fact-checking: las fakes news desmentidas por Newtral en la crisis del coronavirus en España. Revista Española De Comunicación En Salud, 103.

Rass, S. (2020). Judging the quality of (fake) news on the internet. Mind and Society, August, 1–5.

Robertson, C. T., & Mourão, R. R. (2020). Faking Alternative Journalism? An Analysis of Self-Presentations of “Fake News” Sites. Digital Journalism, 0(0), 1–19.

Rodríguez Pérez, C. (2020). Una reflexión sobre la epistemología del fact-checking journalism: retos y dilemas. Revista de Comunicación, 19(1), 243–258.

Salaverría, R., Buslón, N., López-Pan, F., León, B., López-Goñi, I., & Erviti, M. C. (2020). Disinformation in times of pandemic: Typology of hoaxes on Covid-19. El Profesional de La Informacion, 29(3), 1–15.

Sippitt, A., & Moy, W. (2020). Fact Checking is About What we Change not Just Who we Reach. Political Quarterly, 91(3), 592–595.

Tamul, D. J., Ivory, A. H., Hotter, J., & Wolf, J. (2020). All the President’s Tweets: Effects of Exposure to Trump’s “Fake News” Accusations on Perceptions of Journalists, News Stories, and Issue Evaluation. Mass Communication and Society, 23(3), 301–330.

Tong, C., Gill, H., Li, J., Valenzuela, S., & Rojas, H. (2020). “Fake News Is Anything They Say!” — Conceptualization and Weaponization of Fake News among the American Public. Mass Communication and Society, 23(5), 755–778.

Travica, B. (2020). Mediating Realities: A Case of the Boeing 737 MAX. Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, 23, 025–046.

Tsang, S. J. (2020). Issue stance and perceived journalistic motives explain divergent audience perceptions of fake news. Journalism.

Vaccari, C., & Chadwick, A. (2020). Deepfakes and Disinformation: Exploring the Impact of Synthetic Political Video on Deception, Uncertainty, and Trust in News. Social Media and Society, 6(1).

Van Heekeren, M. (2020). The Curative Effect of Social Media on Fake News: A Historical Re-evaluation. Journalism Studies, 21(3), 306–318.

Wang, M., Rao, M., & Sun, Z. (2020). Typology, Etiology, and Fact-Checking: A Pathological Study of Top Fake News in China. Journalism Practice, 0(0), 1–19.

Wasserman, H. (2020). Fake news from Africa: Panics, politics and paradigms. Journalism, 21(1), 3–16.

Xu, K., Wang, F., Wang, H., & Yang, B. (2020). Detecting fake news over online social media via domain reputations and content understanding. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 25(1), 20–27.

Xu, N., & Gutsche, R. E. (2020). “Going Offline”: Social Media, Source Verification, and Chinese Investigative Journalism During “Information Overload.” Journalism Practice, 1–17.

Yadlin-Segal, A., & Oppenheim, Y. (2020). Whose dystopia is it anyway? Deepfakes and social media regulation. Convergence, 1–16.


Alba-Juez, L., & Mackenzie, J. L. (2019). Emotion, lies, and “bullshit” in journalistic discourse: The case of fake news. Iberica, 38, 17–50.

Alcantara, J. (2019). Acredite em mim, eu sou jornalista! Uma abordagem luhmanniana sobre desinformação. Estudos Em Comunicação, 1(28), 189–199.

Álvarez Berastegi, A., Gurrutxaga, G., & Goikoetxea, U. (2019). El efecto péndulo de la transición digital. Un estudio cualitativo sobre medios en euskera y en catalán. Estudios Sobre El Mensaje Periodístico, 25(2), 621–637.

Baek, Y. M., Kang, H., & Kim, S. (2019). Fake News Should Be Regulated Because It Influences Both “Others” and “Me”: How and Why the Influence of Presumed Influence Model Should Be Extended. Mass Communication and Society, 22(3), 301–323.

Barrón-Cedeño, A., Jaradat, I., Da San Martino, G., & Nakov, P. (2019). Proppy: Organizing the news based on their propagandistic content. Information Processing and Management, 56(5), 1849–1864.

Bhaskaran, H., Mishra, H., & Nair, P. (2019). Journalism Education in Post-Truth Era: Pedagogical Approaches Based on Indian Journalism Students’ Perception of Fake News. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 74(2), 158–170.

Blanco-Herrero, D. (2019). Percepciones de los periodistas españoles sobre la utilidad de la deontología periodística para enfrentarse a las noticias falsas. IC Revista Científica de Información y Comunicación, 16, 549–577.

Blanco-Herrero, D., & Arcila-Calderón, C. (2019). Deontología y noticias falsas: estudio de las percepciones de periodistas españoles. El Profesional de La Información, 28(3), 1–13.

Borges, L., Martins, B., & Calado, P. (2019). Combining similarity features and deep representation learning for stance detection in the context of checking fake news. Journal of Data and Information Quality, 11(3).

Bowe, B. J. (2019). Separating real from fake: Building news literacy with the Frayer Model. Communication Teacher, 4622.

Braun, J. A., & Eklund, J. L. (2019). Fake News, Real Money: Ad Tech Platforms, Profit-Driven Hoaxes, and the Business of Journalism. Digital Journalism, 7(1), 1–21.

Canavilhas, J., Bittencourt, M., & de Andrade, M. A. A. (2019). Viral content on Facebook: A case study on the run-up to the Brazilian 2018 presidential elections. Brazilian Journalism Research, 15(3), 562–589.

Cárdenas Rica, M. L. (2019). Análisis de las iniciativas de fact-checking en España. Revista Inclusiones. Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales, 6(Número Especial), 62–82. vol 6 num 4 sevilla2019octubdiciemb19incl.pdf

Catalina-García, B., Sousa, J. P., & Cristina Silva Sousa, L. C. (2019). Consumption of news and perception of fake news among Communication students from Brazil, Spain and Portugal. Revista de Comunicacion, 18(2), 93–115.

Choi, S., & Lim, J. (2019). Determinant and consequence of online news authorship verification: Blind news consumption creates press credibility. International Journal of Communication, 13, 1120–1142.

Christensen, C. (2019). The Weaponization of Doubt. Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, 12(2), 133–148.

Creech, B., & Roessner, A. (2019). Declaring the Value of Truth: Progressive-era lessons for combatting fake news. Journalism Practice, 13(3), 263–279.

Cristina, L., Dias, F., & Raimo, D. (2020). Jornalismo digital e fake news – Cad. Letras UFF, 2019 // Digital journalism and fake news – Cad. Letras UFF, 2019. Cad. Letras UFF, Niterói, 30(59), 133–146.

Deepika, N., & Guruprasad, N. (2019). Detecting text anomalies in social networks using different machine learning algorithms. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 8(6), 4956–4960.

Dorofeeva, V. (2019). Fake News in Modern Media Space. Theoretical and Practical Issues of Journalism, 8(4), 774–786.

Eldridge, S. A. (2019). “Thank god for Deadspin”: Interlopers, metajournalistic commentary, and fake news through the lens of “journalistic realization.” New Media and Society, 21(4), 856–878.

Fallis, D., & Mathiesen, K. (2019). Fake news is counterfeit news. Inquiry, 1–20.

Farhall, K., Gibbons, A., Wright, S., Gibbons, A., & Lukamto, W. (2019). Political Elites ’ Use of Fake News Discourse Across Communications Platforms The University of Melbourne , Australia The University of Texas at Austin , USA. International Journal of Communication, 13, 4353–4375.

Figueira, J., & Santos, S. (2019). Percepción de las noticias falsas en universitarios de Portugal: análisis de su consumo y actitudes. El Profesional de La Información, 28(3), 1–17.

Flores-Vivar, J. M. (2019). Artificial intelligence and journalism: diluting the impact of disinformation and fake news through bots. Doxa Comunicación. Revista Interdisciplinar de Estudios de Comunicación y Ciencias Sociales, 29, 197–212.

Fossá, M. I. T., & Müller, K. A. (2019). Crosscheck as a legitimization strategy of the journalism field in response to fake news. Brazilian Journalism Research, 15(3), 430–451.

Glisson, L. (2019). Breaking the Spin Cycle: Teaching Complexity in the Age of Fake News. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 19(3), 461–484.

Gutsche, R. E. (2019). Elevating Problems of Journalistic Power in an Age of Post-Truth. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 74(2), 240–248.

Humprecht, E. (2020). How Do They Debunk “Fake News”? A Cross-National Comparison of Transparency in Fact Checks. Digital Journalism, 8(3), 310–327.

Ibrahim, A. M. (2020). Theorizing the Journalism Model of Disinformation and Hate Speech Propagation in a Nigerian Democratic Context. International Journal of E-Politics, 10(2), 60–73.

Iosifidis, P., & Nicoli, N. (2020). The battle to end fake news: A qualitative content analysis of Facebook announcements on how it combats disinformation. International Communication Gazette, 82(1), 60–81.

Kanozia, R. (2019). Analysis of digital tools and technologies for Debunking Fake News. Journal of Content, Community and Communication, 9(2019), 114–122.

Kim, B., & Yoon, Y. (2019). Journalism model based on blockchain with sharing space. Symmetry, 11(1).

Krishnamurthi, S. (2019). Fiji’s coup culture: Rediscovering a voice at the ballot box. Pacific Journalism Review : Te Koakoa, 25(1&2), 39–51.

Kumar, A., Singh, S., & Kaur, G. (2019). Fake news detection of Indian and United States election data using machine learning algorithm. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8(11), 1559–1563.

Lakshmanan, L. V. S., Simpson, M., & Thirumuruganathan, S. (2018). Combating fake news: A data management and mining perspective. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment, 12(12), 1990–1993.

Lischka, J. A. (2019). A Badge of Honor?: How The New York Times discredits President Trump’s fake news accusations. Journalism Studies, 20(2), 287–304.

López-Cantos, F. (2019). The impact on public trust of image manipulation in science. Informing Science, 22, 45–53.

López-García, X., Vizoso, Á., & Pérez-Seijo, S. (2019). Verification initiatives in the scenario of misinformation: Actants for integrated plans with multi-level strategies. Brazilian Journalism Research, 15(3), 614–635.

Maldonado, M. A. (2019). Understanding fake news: Technology, affects, and the politics of the untruth. Historia y Comunicacion Social, 24(2), 533–546.

Mare, A., Mabweazara, H. M., & Moyo, D. (2019). “Fake News” and Cyber-Propaganda in Sub-Saharan Africa: Recentering the Research Agenda. African Journalism Studies, 40(4), 1–12.

Mayoral, J., Parratt, S., & Morata, M. (2019). Desinformación, manipulación y credibilidad periodísticas: una perspectiva histórica. Historia y Comunicación Social, 24(2), 395–409.

Molina, M. D., Sundar, S. S., Le, T., & Lee, D. (2019). “Fake News” Is Not Simply False Information: A Concept Explication and Taxonomy of Online Content. American Behavioral Scientist.

Monteiro Borges, P., & Rampazzo Gambarato, R. (2019). The role of beliefs and behavior on Facebook: A semiotic approach to algorithms, fake news, and transmedia journalism. International Journal of Communication, 13, 603–618.

Morales-Sánchez, I., & Martin-Villarreal, J. P. (2019). Double-click Rhetoric: Rhetorical Strategies of Communication in the Digital Context. Res Rhetorica, 6(1), 1–16.

Moretzsohn, S. D. (2019). Chaff, wheat, filters, and bubbles: A discussion on fake news, journalism, credibility, and affections at network times. Brazilian Journalism Research, 15(3), 540–561.

Mourão, R. R., & Robertson, C. T. (2019). Fake News as Discursive Integration: An Analysis of Sites That Publish False, Misleading, Hyperpartisan and Sensational Information. Journalism Studies, 20(14), 2077–2095.

Mutsvairo, B., & Bebawi, S. (2019). Journalism Educators, Regulatory Realities, and Pedagogical Predicaments of the “Fake News” Era: A Comparative Perspective on the Middle East and Africa. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 74(2), 143–157.

Ncube, L. (2019). Digital Media, Fake News and Pro-Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) Alliance Cyber-Propaganda during the 2018 Zimbabwe Election. African Journalism Studies, 40(4), 44–61.

Papadopoulou, O., Zampoglou, M., Papadopoulos, S., & Kompatsiaris, I. (2019). A corpus of debunked and verified user-generated videos. Online Information Review, 43(1), 72–88.

Pyrhönen, N., & Bauvois, G. (2020). Conspiracies beyond Fake News. Produsing Reinformation on Presidential Elections in the Transnational Hybrid Media System. Sociological Inquiry, 90(4), 705–731.

Quintanilha, T. L., Da Silva, M. T., & Lapa, T. (2019). Fake news and its impact on trust in the news. Using the portuguese case to establish lines of differentiation. Communication and Society, 32(3), 17–33.

Revuelta-De-la-Poza, G. (2019). Journalists’ vision of the evolution of the (metaphorical) ecosystem of communication on health and biomedicine. El Profesional de La Información, 28(3), 1–9.

Ritonga, R., & Syahputra, I. (2019). Citizen journalism and public participation in the Era of New Media in Indonesia: From street to tweet. Media and Communication, 7(3 Civic Organizations in an Age of Distrust), 79–90.

Rodrigo-Alsina, M., & Cerqueira, L. (2019). Periodismo, ética y posverdad. Cuadernos.Info, 44, 225–239.

Rubin, V. L. (2019). Disinformation and misinformation triangle. Journal of Documentation, 75(5), 1013–1034.

Shoemaker, T. D. (2019). World religion and fake news: A pedagogical response in an age of post‐truth. Teaching Theology & Religion, 22(4), 280–290.

Tandoc, E. C., Jenkins, J., & Craft, S. (2018). Fake News as a Critical Incident in Journalism. Journalism Practice.

Träsel, M., Lisboa, S., & Vinciprova, G. R. (2019). Post-truthandtrust injournalism: An analysis of credibility Indicators in Brazilian venues. Brazilian Journalism Research, 15(3), 452–473.

Tsarwe, S. (2019). Searching for elusive journalism values in the era of fake news: a qualitative study on the experiences of a blogging community in Zimbabwe. Communicare: Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa, 38(1), 16–36.

Ufarte Ruiz, M. J., Sidorenko Bautista, P., & Cantero de Julián, J. I. (2019). El negocio de las noticias falsas. El caso de “El Mundo Today.” Historia y Comunicación Social, 24(2), 561–578.

Valarezo-Cambizaca, L.-M., & Rodríguez-Hidalgo, C. (2019). La innovación en el periodismo como antídoto ante las fake news. Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies, 20, 24–35.

Valenzuela, S., Halpern, D., Katz, J. E., & Miranda, J. P. (2019). The Paradox of Participation Versus Misinformation: Social Media, Political Engagement, and the Spread of Misinformation. Digital Journalism, 7(6), 802–823.

Van Duyn, E., & Collier, J. (2019). Priming and Fake News: The Effects of Elite Discourse on Evaluations of News Media. Mass Communication and Society, 22(1), 29–48.

Van Heekeren, M. (2020). The Curative Effect of Social Media on Fake News: A Historical Re-evaluation. Journalism Studies, 21(3), 306–318.

Vázquez-Herrero, J., Vizoso, Á., & López-García, X. (2019). Innovación tecnológica y comunicativa para combatir la desinformación: 135 experiencias para un cambio de rumbo. El Profesional de La Información, 28(3), 1–12.

Vizoso, Á., & Vázquez-Herrero, J. (2019). Fact-checking platforms in Spanish. Features, organisation and method. Communication and Society, 32(1), 127–142.

Wagner, M. C., & Boczkowski, P. J. (2019). The Reception of Fake News: The Interpretations and Practices That Shape the Consumption of Perceived Misinformation. Digital Journalism, 7(7), 870–885.

Wahutu, j. S. (2019). Fake News and Journalistic “Rules of the Game.” African Journalism Studies, 40(4), 13–26.

Wasserman, H., & Madrid-Morales, D. (2019). An Exploratory Study of “Fake News” and Media Trust in Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. African Journalism Studies, 40(1), 107–123.

Wijaya, B. S. (2019). Dancing with the impropriety of media: How indonesian consumers think and behave towards the unethical and illogical online news. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 35(1), 187–205.

Yoon, S. (2019). Techno populism and algorithmic manipulation of news in South Korea. Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia, 18(2), 33–48.


Ahmed, K. A. (2018). In Bangladesh: Direct control of media trumps fake news. Journal of Asian Studies, 77(4), 909–922.

Bakir, V., & McStay, A. (2018). Fake News and The Economy of Emotions: Problems, causes, solutions. Digital Journalism, 6(2), 154–175.

Banerjee, A., & Haque, M. N. (2018). Is fake news real in India? Journal of Content, Community and Communication, 4(8), 46–49.

Barth, V., & Homberg, M. (2018). Fake News. Geschichte und Theorie falscher Nachrichten. Geschichte Und Gesellschaft, 44(4), 619–642.

Bennett, W. L., & Livingston, S. (2018). The disinformation order: Disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions. European Journal of Communication, 33(2), 122–139.

Bharali, B., & Goswami, A. L. (2018). Fake news: Credibility, cultivation syndrome and the new age media. Media Watch, 9(1), 118–130.

Carson, A., & Farhall, K. (2018). Understanding Collaborative Investigative Journalism in a “Post-Truth” Age. Journalism Studies, 19(13), 1899–1911.

Chadwick, A., Vaccari, C., & O’Loughlin, B. (2018). Do tabloids poison the well of social media? Explaining democratically dysfunctional news sharing. New Media and Society, 20(11), 4255–4274.

Chen, X. (2018). Calling Out Fake News on Social Media: A Comparison of Literature in Librarianship and Journalism. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 23(1–2), 1–13.

Cheruiyot, D., & Ferrer-Conill, R. (2018). “Fact-Checking Africa”: Epistemologies, data and the expansion of journalistic discourse. Digital Journalism, 6(8), 964–975.

Ciampaglia, G. L., Mantzarlis, A., Maus, G., & Menczer, F. (2018). Research challenges of digital misinformation: Toward a trustworthy web. AI Magazine, 39(1), 65–74.

Delmazo, C., & Valente, J. C. L. (2018). Fake news nas redes sociais online: propagação e reações à desinformação em busca de cliques. Media & Jornalismo, 18(32), 155–169.

Duffy, A., & Tan Rui Si, J. (2018). Naming the Dog on the Internet: Student reporters’ verification tactics for non-elite newsmakers online. Digital Journalism, 6(7), 910–927.

Eichler, V. A., Kalsing, J., & Gruszynski, A. (2018). O ethos do jornal O Globo e a campanha contra as fake news. Media & Jornalismo, 18(32), 139–154.

Ershov, Y. M. (2018). The phenomenon of fake in the context of communication practices. Vestnik Tomskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta, Filologiya, 52, 245–256.

Finneman, T., & Thomas, R. J. (2018). A family of falsehoods: Deception, media hoaxes and fake news. Newspaper Research Journal, 39(3), 350–361.

Frank, R. (2018). Fake news vs. “foke” news:a brief, personal, recent history. Journal of American Folklore, 131(522), 379–387.

Gorbach, J. (2018). Not your grandpa’s hoax: A comparative history of fake news. American Journalism, 35(2), 236–249.

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